The Nature for City LIFE project inclides 10 actions. They meet both operationnal targets:
To inform public on multifunctional GBI based on demonstration sites in urbanmetropolises.
Develop governance tools with multiple public and stakeholders to strengthen the integration of BGI in urban planning projects) of the project as well as the LIFE 2016 guidelines for applicant's objectives.
- 1 action on urban monitoring implementation and socio-economic information, which seeks the establishment of an urban monitoring system (air quality, heat island effect, humidity) and a socio-economic system to inform about the services provided by urban GBI in the face of climate change. This action targets the OT1 of the project as well as the guideline for applicants regarding information panel / awareness on climate change.
- 4 actions of implementation regarding integrated climate governance, training and awareness: this corpus of actions targets the OP 2 and the integrated climate governance stake by strengthening environmental dialogue in planning projects as well as activities related to urban footpaths (based on existing and non-existing footpaths). It also targets the LIFE guideline for applicants through the training of planners and elected officials to deliver climate contextualized solutions based on GBI.
- 2 actions of communication and dissemination of results: actions are based on, networking, organising forums / seminars and on the development of communication tools such as traveling exhibitions. These actions targets the OT2 of the project and meets the challenge of a better communication with local stakeholders as written in the LIFE guideline.
- 1 action based on the monitoring impact of project actions: meets project monitoring issues to measure project impacts through indicators. This action is linked with the overall strategic objective.
- 2 Project Management actions: these actions are referred to the financial and adminstrative project monitoring and the sustainability of the post-Nature for City LIFE project. These actions ensure the proper financial progress through the five years of the project as well as the good work through of the 10 actions and to present the post-LIFE project strategic planning.
The services provided by nature in cities in relation to climate change are not well known by the various stakeholders (various public, elected officials, technicians).
This action aims, through two complementary sub-actions, to produce physical, sociological and economic data directly on the territories in order to objectify the services provided to stakeholders. The fact that the data come from the territory gives them a stronger impact because they are adapted to the local territorial context and they directly concern local actors.
It responds to the operational target "inform, sensitize and train various audiences and stakeholders on the services provided by nature in cities, based on demonstration sites".
C1.1. Climate monitoring (Air PACA)
Implementation of a temperature, humidity and air quality measurement system in the three territories of the project on demonstration sites, identified as green and blue infrastructure (IVB).
5 criteria for the selection of demonstration sites:
- in the urban matrix;
- strong urbanization challenges;
- lack of governance on issues related to BVI and climate change;
- Differentiated location of sites according to a gradient of urbanization (dense city centre and more spread-out urban fringe);
- location on an existing urban hiking trail or at create (C2.1) or nearby.
Localized meteorological parameters include temperature, humidity, and anemometry. For quality parameters, the pollutants measured are particulate matter (lower at 2.5µm - PM 2.5), nitrogen oxides (NO2), and ozone (O3).
Air PACA will monitor possible synergies with the characterization of noise nuisances (existing noise beacons).
Air PACA has a network of permanent reference air quality stations with historical data. These stations meet European and national standards in terms of emissions of air quality (equipment, maintenance, station typology, measurement methodologies, etc.) and provide data for national and European reporting.
The demonstration sites will be equipped with micro-sensors. To estimate the reliability and to know the measurement distance between micro-sensors and data recorded by the monitoring devices.
For reference stations, the reference sites will be doubled: by geographical area, the micro-sensor will be positioned at the right of a reference station. The other sensor microphones will be on the demonstration sites.
18 sites equipped with micro-sensors are planned, including 4 duplicate sites on 4 Air PACA reference sites.
Weather and pollution data are centralized on a remote server. They will be automatically exported for processing, consultation or posting in the communication system (installation of information panels with a "QR code" for smartphone (C2.1) referring to the project website listing the collected data and information of type articles, stories, video on IVB and climate change (C3.1).
Two levels of data use are proposed:
1. real-time information of measured data and comparison between demonstration sites and control stations for users;
2. Analysis of annual trends in urban heat island and air quality information.
The measurement log is as follows:
- daily recordings in spring and summer of temperature data at 0:00 am and 12:00 pm (heat island effect);
- recording of hygrometry after rainfall episodes (moisture retention capacity), data correlated with temperature;
- daily (3 times per day) recordings of air quality parameters by comparing vacation periods vs. work periods and weekdays vs. weekends.
Production of contextualized information on the physico-chemical services provided by IVBs in cities in response to climate change.
C1.2. Socio-economic monitoring (AMU-LPED)
Sociological surveys for the general public
Sociological surveys following a methodology based on AMULPED research work.
Audiences targeted and perimeter: users of sites and users of urban hiking trails because the demonstration sites pass through the trails, inhabitants of the neighbourhood around the sites.
Definition and validation of questionnaires and indicators: 5 semi-directive interviews initially conducted with users and inhabitants of each site.
Elaboration of the questionnaire common to all sites.
Conduct of investigations.
Each demonstration site and neighbourhood surveyed once every 2 years.
On each site, semi-directive interviews, over 7 consecutive days, 100 to 150 respondents were interviewed.
Sociological surveys, technicians and elected officials of local authorities
Target groups: elected officials, community technicians (gardeners, urban planners, developers, etc.).
Geographical perimeter: Municipalities, Agglomeration and Metropolises of the 3 territories AMP, NCA and TPM.
Definition and validation of semi-directive and focus-group interview grids and related indicators.
Conduct of investigations.
Each territory surveyed 1 time every 2 years.
On each territory, semi-directive interviews, over 5 consecutive days, between 100 and 150 respondents.
Collection of real estate data (prices, taxes collected...).
Definition and collection of attractiveness data (number of new companies, criteria for decision to set up...).
This sub-Action includes two levels of processing of the data collected that will inform on:
changes in perceptions over the 5 years of the LIFE project
the differential (differentiated urban developments and contexts) between the different sites studied: so many different cases that will be valued.
Enhanced information on the uses, expectations and socio-economic services provided by IVBs in cities.
This action aims to create urban hiking trails and an itinerant "nature in town and climate"reception point, innovative media to communicate, inform and raise awareness on the multifunctional role of urban IVBs in the face of climate change. It meets the operational target "strengthen the integration of nature in cities into urban development projects".
By raising the awareness of stakeholders, this action also aims to give them a common culture enabling them to collectively develop new urban planning projects.
C2.1 Development of new hiking path "Nature in the city and climate".
This already existing metropolitan hiking trail is a communication medium centred on culture, links diverse environments to knowledge, scales of the territory and proposes observation practices, encounters and narratives, in the form of walks, performances, exhibitions, reception points (observatories, orientation tables, signposting, etc.) and media content (texts, images, sounds, etc.).
The aim is to enrich the pathways by highlighting demonstration sites passing through the pathways and their roles in adapting cities and metropolises to climate change.
The action plans to create a GR on TPM, linking the sites identified in Action C1, based on the experience of GR2013, in several stages:
- work on a route for the discovery of the Agglomeration's heritages, including demonstration sites), with a presentation on the role of GBIs for resilience to climate change;
- a signposted urban trail for the Grande Randonnée.
In 2010, NCA developed discovery loops on the city of Nice, 8 itineraries allow you to discover the city's natural, cultural and historical heritage. These loops will be developed within the framework of LIFE, and completed by the development of two new loops on the theme of nature's climate in cities and BGI.
For each site identified in C1.1, the zone will be considered not only for its specific characteristics but also as a point to consider a larger scale of the territory and to propose a narration centred on the GBI and their role in the face of climate change, in particular by linking them to the control site. Pathways and narratives will also be proposed from the site in a larger area, so as to apply the demonstrations to forms of market narrative likely to shift everyone's view of the city, GBI and climate change.
The Technical Monitoring Committee will act as a steering committee and exchange of practices between the actors associated with these urban pathways in the 3 LIFE territories. This will make it possible to support the development of actions in the three project territories and to identify the actors necessary for their implementation in a logic of transferability/replicability of the methodologies deployed.
Partnership actions shall provide for:
- guides (publications): re-release of the GR 2013 Topoguide in 2018 and enrichment of the guide with an IVB and climate change component, edition of a specific guide for the TPM trail, re-release of the NCA booklet on urban loops and creation of a corresponding guide;
- animation actions aimed at networking the demonstration sites and creating a common platform for the demonstration sites and a narration on the multifunctionality of GBI and climate change:
- expeditions: survey narratives, installations, exhibitions, performances: accounts of preliminary investigations carried out by authors in original forms (multimedia / installations / exhibitions / performances). Constitution and pooling of resources (open data). Creation of print and web content to enrich downloadable walking sheets;
- hospitalities on each of the sites: installation of refuge (for inhabitants, visitors, fauna, flora). Reflections on the planning of public spaces (workshops, urban planning workshops, construction, assembly);
- excursions: walks, creation of routes, accompaniment and mediation around the routes, hikes, themed bivouacs "nature in city and climate".
C2.2 Creation of a mobile "house of nature in town" reception point.
Acquisition by the Region of a mobile reception point "nature in town and climate". It will be deployed in each of the 3 partner territories and positioned on the urban GR route.
Its vocation is to inform and sensitize all the public (inhabitants, GR hikers, schoolchildren, technicians, elected officials) on nature in the city, ecosystem services and techniques to develop and manage nature in the city.
This place will make it possible to understand not only the functions of nature in cities, the problem of climate change and global changes, the role that nature can play in cities to improve the resilience of urban territories, the solidarity between nature in cities and peri-urban nature, the concepts of BVI and, more generally, the role of biodiversity for mankind and the development of our societies.
It will also be a place to disseminate the actions and results of the LIFE programme: documentation, MOOC videos (C3.1).
It will host a full version of the project's "Nature in the City and Climate Change" exhibition and will be an information point on the urban hiking trail, including all the events that will be held there each year.
This mobile reception point will be fully equipped for its missions (documentary, video, sound and animation equipment).
Expected results of C2 action
Raising public awareness of the role of nature in the city on climate change, modification of stakeholder representations, common culture enabling new urban planning projects to evolve collectively.
The aim of this action is to train all city designers in the ecosystem services provided by nature in an urban environment as well as in techniques for integrating nature into urban projects, so that decision-makers have a real motivation to integrate more nature into current or future projects (areas of concerted development, rehabilitation, infrastructures, etc.). It meets the operational objective "to strengthen the integration of nature in cities into urban development projects".
C3.1 Theoretical training of technicians
The "nature in the city and climate" training for technicians will be done through two MOOCs (Massive Open Online Course). These two MOOCs (initiation and advanced) will be hosted by the FUN platform (www.fun-mooc.fr/).
To meet the objective of the action, this training aims to acquire the following skills:
knowledge of all ecosystem services provided by nature in urban areas;
knowledge of the state of the art and good command of techniques for integrating nature into urban projects with a view to improving resilience to climate change.
For local authorities: technicians of the services in charge of urban planning issues (urban planning, instruction of building permits, etc.), environment (climate, biodiversity, green spaces, etc.) and urban planning agencies.
For developers: architects, engineers and technicians in buildings and public works of large developers, SME-TPEs involved in the field of construction and public works.
A first initiation session will be launched in September-October 2018. Then one introductory session per year.
A first advanced session will be launched in May-June 2019, followed by an annual refresher session.
In 2020 the two sessions will be translated into Spanish, Italian and German for wider distribution in Europe.
- In the region, train 100 technicians from LIFE partner communities, 100 technicians from "non-LIFE" communities and 200 technicians from "developers".
- Outside the Region, as the recruitment of participants is done via the Internet, the project aims to train a minimum of 200 people per year via MOOC "nature in town and climate" (validating the 2 sessions).
C3.2 Theoretical training of elected officials.
Objectives of the training
Elected officials with functions on urban planning (urban planning, building permits, etc.) or on the environment (climate, biodiversity, green spaces, etc.).
Planned course contents and schedules.
The training courses will address the same themes developed in MOOC, summarized and adapted for elected officials. Their content, developed on the basis of the work of C3.1, will be defined and validated by all LIFE partners and the relevant approved training bodies in the project territories.
Each year, 3 training sessions of two days each for 20 elected representatives will be organized in each of the territories.
Training of 150 to 200 elected officials during the LIFE period.
C3.3 "Nature in the City and Climate" practical workshops
In addition to the theoretical training courses, practical workshops on the implementation of the acquired knowledge, involving elected officials and technicians, will be organised in the three project territories.
Work on urban planning documents related to the theme:
- green and blue screens (TVB) of the SCOT, PLU, PLUi, for an optimal consideration of ecological continuity from a metropolis to the commune;
- territorial climate-air-air-energy plans on aspects related to the development of nature in cities;
- Agenda 21, for a greater consideration of nature in cities.
These practical workshops will be organised at the request of the local authorities of the project territories (Municipalities, EPCI, etc.) wishing to work on one of the planning documents concerned.
Each year 5 one-day sessions will be organized (maximum 20 participants/session).
All technicians and elected officials from the project territories who have attended or are to attend theoretical training courses (cf. C3.1).
Work each year on 10 different documents, 40 over the duration of LIFE.
An optional preliminary consultation may be held prior to the filing of an application for planning permission for any public or private project subject to a building permit or planning permission (hereinafter referred to as urban projects), located on a territory covered by a planning document, and not falling within the list of planning operations mentioned in Article R. 300-1 of the Urban Planning Code.
This action aims to implement this preliminary consultation process.
It will also be possible to organize workshops specifically on the theme of nature development in cities to strengthen their resilience to climate change.
The objective of this action is to enable the development of the consultation upstream and aims to help prevent downstream litigation. Indeed, allowing the public to make comments or proposals before the permit is submitted helps to improve the quality of urban projects and thus their acceptability.
This action meets the operational objective "to strengthen the integration of nature in cities into urban development projects".
Choice of urban projects
The partner local authorities will decide by deliberation on the list of urban projects to benefit from the "nature in town and climate" dialogue financed by LIFE and organised in partnership with the Region. The partners will deliberate on the list of operations within 6 months after the start of LIFE. This list may be modified according to the state of progress of the projects (integration of new projects, abandonment of old projects by the owners). 5 to 10 projects will be selected per metropolitan territory over the duration of LIFE, i. e. a maximum of 30 projects in total. A first indicative list for possible changes is provided (Action C1).
Organization of workshops
Urban projects in each of the 3 metropolitan areas are monitored by the beneficiary partner concerned. Local governments will ensure participation of their relevant services for the support of th Region who is in charge of the organization for each workshop.
For each urban project, workshops will be scheduled and validated by the technical committee of LIFE. The periodicity of workshops for each urban project will be specified once the local authorities’ deliberations settle on the list of urban projects.
The service provider will be responsible for organizing the recruitment of participants for workshops, in association with the service of local authorities concerned and the citizens' association of the district concerned.
For each project, 4 workshops of 0.5 to 1 day each will be organized.
- a first workshop in three parts:
- presentation of the fundamentals: climate change, services provided by nature, urban resilience;
- presentation of the project in terms of resilience to climate change: artificial surface area, natural surface area, analysis of the project's impact on ecological continuity, quality of buildings in terms of biodiversity, energy;
- shared diagnosis on the consideration of issues related to nature and its role in resilience to climate change.
- two workshops on solutions to meet the challenges identified during the first workshop and their integration into the studied development project;
- a fourth workshop to format the observations and concrete proposals from the public, which will be recorded and preserved as part of the consultation procedure.
In order to ensure everyone's participation in all 4 workshops, these will be organized in collaboration with the inhabitants' associations (CIQ) of the neighbourhoods concerned by the project.
It will thus be necessary to ensure the participation of at least 30 people and, for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th workshops, the participation of at least 20 people who have already participated in the workshops.
C5.1 Citizen Forums
Sharing experiences between citizens to develop knowledge and awareness of the issues at stake in the project. Strengthen citizen involvement in the governance of their territory's climate.
The second and fourth year of LIFE will be organised for exchanges between citizens from all LIFE territories who have participated in the workshops organised in Action C4.
These forums will present the progress of site monitoring systems piloting procedures.
French and European specialists in the fields of biodiversity, urban planning and law will share their knowledge. These specialists will be identified through networking exchanges.
Experiences from other French and European regions on urban nature and climate issues will be presented and discussed with citizens. They will have been selected through networking.
Creation of 2 citizens' forums (on two of the three partner territories) with a minimum participation of 100 people
Elaboration of a dossier of proposals for citizen governance on the issue of nature in cities and distribution of 1000 copies in French and English.
C5.2 European Forum "Nature in Cities and Climate Change"
Disseminate the methodologies and initial results of LIFE and enrich the experiences of other territories in Europe.
Organisation of a forum for presentations and exchanges between actors of the city and European scientists on the services provided by nature in the city and the means of developing it.
Detailed technical presentation of the results of the actions carried out by this LIFE, pooling of good urbanisation practices based on the development of nature in cities, at European level.
Creation of a European network around the issue, targeting actors working in the field of urban planning and biodiversity.
Setting up a virtual forum, via the LIFE website, to initiate the dynamics of sharing and exchanges around the issue and allow the collection of experiences, some of which will be presented during the "real"forum. Everyone can contribute to enriching the exchanges: experiences of good practice, presentation of cross-cutting interests in terms of resilience to climate change; analysis of public policies applied to urban planning; identification of the following
experiences and achievements that bring innovations.
Organisation of the "real" forum for feedback and exchanges between actors of the city and European scientists for two days. Six European countries will be solicited: France, Spain, Italy, Netherlands and Spain.
Bas, Belgium Germany (simultaneous translation). The citizens' councils participating in C4 actions will contribute to the exchanges and will be able to present their experiences and the outputs of their workshops at the final forum.
The overall approach aims in particular to achieve, between the cooperating countries, the joint elaboration of a proposal dossier to take better account of nature and its services in urban planning.
Creation of a forum for exchanges between city stakeholders and scientists from the 6 countries concerned with a minimum participation of 200 people (all audiences included).
Drawing up of a proposal dossier to take better account of nature and its services in urban planning.